One-Step Aeroacoustics Simulation Using Lattice Boltzmann Method (Full Paper)

The lattice Boltzmann method(LBM)is a numerical simplification of the Boltzmann equation of the kinetic theory of gases that describes fluid motions by tracking the evolution of the particle velocity distribution function based on linear streaming with nonlinear collision. If the BhatnagarGrossKrook (BGK) collision model is invoked, the velocity distribution function in this mesoscopic description of nonlinear fluid motions is essentially linear. This intrinsic feature of LBM can be exploited for convenient parallel programming, which makes itself particularly attractive for one-step aeroacoustics simulations. It is shown that the compressible NavierStokes equations and the ideal gas equation of state can be correctly recovered by considering the translational and rotational degrees of freedom of diatomic gases in the internal energy and using a multiscale ChapmanEnskog expansion. Assuming two relaxation times in the BGK model allows the temperature dependence of the first coefficient of viscosity of diatomic gases to be replicated. The modifiedLBMmodel is solved using a two-dimensional 9-discretized and a twodimensional 13-discretized velocity lattices. Three cases are selected to validate the one-step LBM aeroacoustics simulation. They are the one-dimensional acoustic pulse propagation, the circular acoustic pulse propagation, and the propagation of acoustic, vorticity, and entropy pulses in a uniform stream. The accuracy of the LBM is established by comparing with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results obtained by solving the governing equations using a finite difference scheme. The tests show that the proposed LBM and the DNS give identical results, thus suggesting that the LBM can be used to simulate aeroacoustics problems correctly.

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